Nobles from Central Asia's Timurid kingdoms also came to Vijayanagara. Gajashaala or elephant's stable, built by the Vijayanagar rulers for their war elephants. Vijayanagara marketplace at Hampi , along with the sacred tank located on the side of Krishna temple. The empire's legacy includes many monuments spread over South India, the best known of which is the group at Hampi. The previous temple building traditions in South India came together in the Vijayanagara Architecture style. The mingling of all faiths and vernaculars inspired architectural innovation of Hindu temple construction, first in the Deccan and later in the Dravidian idioms using the local granite.
South Indian mathematics flourished under the protection of the Vijayanagara Empire in Kerala. Vijayanagara went into decline after the defeat in the Battle of Talikota After the death of Aliya Rama Raya in the Battle of Talikota, Tirumala Deva Raya started the Aravidu dynasty , moved and founded a new capital of Penukonda to replace the destroyed Hampi, and attempted to reconstitute the remains of Vijayanagara Empire.
The Aravidu dynasty successors ruled the region but the empire collapsed in , and the final remains ended in , from continued wars with the Bijapur sultanate and others. For two and a half centuries from the mid 13th century, politics in Northern India was dominated by the Delhi Sultanate , and in Southern India by the Vijayanagar Empire. However, there were other regional powers present as well. Their power reached its zenith under Rana Sanga , who was the Rana of Mewar and head of a powerful Hindu Rajput confederacy in Rajputana ; during whose time Rajput armies were constantly victorious against the Sultanate armies.
In the south, the Bahmani Sultanate , which was established either by a Brahman convert or patronised by a Brahman and from that source it was given the name Bahmani ,  was the chief rival of the Vijayanagara, and frequently created difficulties for the Vijayanagara. After which, the Bahmani Sultanate collapsed,  resulting it being split into five small Deccan sultanates. In the East, the Gajapati Kingdom remained a strong regional power to reckon with, associated with a high point in the growth of regional culture and architecture. Under Kapilendradeva , Gajapatis became an empire stretching from the lower Ganga in the north to the Kaveri in the south.
Rang Ghar , built by Pramatta Singha in Ahom Kingdom 's capital Rongpur , is one of the earliest pavilions of outdoor stadia in the Indian subcontinent. Kareng Ghar is a seven-storied royal palace built by Rajeswar Singha of the Ahom dynasty.
Ranakpur Jain temple was built in the 15th century with the support of the Rajput state of Mewar. Gol Gumbaz built by the Bijapur Sultanate , has the second largest pre-modern dome in the world after the Byzantine Hagia Sophia.
The early modern period of Indian history is dated from CE to CE, corresponding to the rise and fall of the Mughal Empire , during which India's economy expanded, relative peace was maintained and arts were patronized. This period witnessed the further development of Indo-Islamic architecture ;   the growth of Maratha and Sikhs were able to rule significant regions of India in the waning days of the Mughal empire, which formally came to an end when the British Raj was founded.
The famous emperor Akbar the Great , who was the grandson of Babar, tried to establish a good relationship with the Hindus. Akbar declared "Amari" or non-killing of animals in the holy days of Jainism.
He rolled back the jizya tax for non-Muslims. The Mughal emperors married local royalty, allied themselves with local maharajas , and attempted to fuse their Turko-Persian culture with ancient Indian styles, creating a unique Indo-Persian culture and Indo-Saracenic architecture. Akbar married a Rajput princess, Mariam-uz-Zamani , and they had a son, Jahangir , who was part-Mughal and part-Rajput, as were future Mughal emperors. The Mughal dynasty ruled most of the Indian subcontinent by The reign of Shah Jahan was the golden age of Mughal architecture.
It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent ,  and surpassed China to be become the world's largest economic power, controlling Humayun's Tomb in Delhi, built in CE. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Shivaji.
Sarkar wrote "All seemed to have been gained by Aurangzeb now, but in reality all was lost. The empire went into decline thereafter. The Mughals suffered several blows due to invasions from Marathas , Jats and Afghans.
Baji Rao, however, easily routed the novice Mughal general and the rest of the imperial Mughal army fled. In , in the final defeat of Mughal Empire, the commander-in-chief of the Mughal Army, Nizam-ul-mulk, was routed at Bhopal by the Maratha army. This essentially brought an end to the Mughal Empire. While Bharatpur State under Jat ruler Suraj Mal , overran the Mughal garrison at Agra and plundered the city taking with them the two great silver doors of the entrance of the famous Taj Mahal; which were then melted down by Suraj Mal in Sikh holocaust of took place under the Muslim provincial government based at Lahore to wipe out the Sikhs , with 30, Sikhs being killed, an offensive that had begun with the Mughals, with the Sikh holocaust of ,  and lasted several decades under its Muslim successor states.
Maratha Empire at its zenith in yellow area , covering much of the Indian subcontinent, stretching from South India to present-day Pakistan. Shaniwarwada palace fort in Pune , the seat of the Peshwa rulers of the Maratha Empire until In the early 18th century the Maratha Empire extended suzerainty over the Indian subcontinent. Under the Peshwas, the Marathas consolidated and ruled over much of South Asia. The Marathas are credited to a large extent for ending Mughal rule in India. The Maratha kingdom was founded and consolidated by Chatrapati Shivaji , a Maratha aristocrat of the Bhonsle clan.
Historian K. Datta wrote that Bajirao I "may very well be regarded as the second founder of the Maratha Empire".
By the early 18th century, the Maratha Kingdom had transformed itself into the Maratha Empire under the rule of the Peshwas prime ministers. In , the Marathas defeated a Mughal army in their capital, in the Battle of Delhi. The Marathas continued their military campaigns against the Mughals , Nizam , Nawab of Bengal and the Durrani Empire to further extend their boundaries. By , the domain of the Marathas stretched across most of the Indian subcontinent. The Marathas even discussed abolishing the Mughal throne and placing Vishwasrao Peshwa on the Mughal imperial throne in Delhi.
The empire at its peak stretched from Tamil Nadu  in the south, to Peshawar modern-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa , Pakistan  [note 2] in the north, and Bengal in the east. However, the Maratha authority in the north was re-established within a decade under Peshwa Madhavrao I. The Sikh Empire , ruled by members of the Sikh religion , was a political entity that governed the Northwestern regions of the Indian subcontinent. The empire, based around the Punjab region , existed from to It was forged, on the foundations of the Khalsa , under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh — from an array of autonomous Punjabi Misls of the Sikh Confederacy.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh consolidated many parts of northern India into an empire. He primarily used his Sikh Khalsa Army that he trained in European military techniques and equipped with modern military technologies. Ranjit Singh proved himself to be a master strategist and selected well-qualified generals for his army. He continuously defeated the Afghan armies and successfully ended the Afghan-Sikh Wars. In stages, he added central Punjab, the provinces of Multan and Kashmir, and the Peshawar Valley to his empire.
At its peak, in the 19th century, the empire extended from the Khyber Pass in the west, to Kashmir in the north, to Sindh in the south, running along Sutlej river to Himachal in the east. The hard-fought first Anglo-Sikh war and second Anglo-Sikh war marked the downfall of the Sikh Empire, making it among the last areas of the Indian subcontinent to be conquered by the British. The Kingdom of Mysore in southern India expanded to its greatest extent under Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan in the later half of the 18th century.
Under their rule, Mysore fought series of wars against the Marathas and British or their combined forces. The Maratha—Mysore War ended in April , following the finalizing of treaty of Gajendragad , in which, Tipu Sultan was obligated to pay tribute to the Marathas. Mysore's alliance with the French was seen as a threat to the British East India Company, and Mysore was attacked from all four sides.
The Nizam of Hyderabad and the Marathas launched an invasion from the north. The British won a decisive victory at the Siege of Seringapatam Hyderabad was founded by the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golconda in The Nizams lost considerable territory and paid tribute to the Maratha Empire after being routed in multiple battles, such as the Battle of Palkhed. Hyderabad State became princely state in British India The Nawabs of Bengal had become the de facto rulers of Bengal following the decline of Mughal Empire.
However, their rule was interrupted by Marathas who carried out six expeditions in Bengal from to , as a result of which Bengal became a tributary state of Marathas. He lost to the British, who took over the charge of Bengal in , installed Mir Jafar on the Masnad throne and established itself to a political power in Bengal. In the system was abolished and Bengal was brought under direct control of the British.
In , when the Nizamat governorship of the Nawab was also taken away from them, they remained as the mere pensioners of the British East India Company. In the 18th century the whole of Rajputana was virtually subdued by the Marathas. In , the British went to war with the Pindaris , raiders who were based in Maratha territory, which quickly became the Third Anglo-Maratha War , and the British government offered its protection to the Rajput rulers from the Pindaris and the Marathas.
By the end of similar treaties had been executed between the other Rajput states and Britain. After the fall of the Maratha Empire , many Maratha dynasties and states became vassals in a subsidiary alliance with the British, to form the largest bloc of princely states in the British Raj , in terms of territory and population.
After the fall of the Vijayanagara Empire , Polygar states emerged in Southern India; and managed to weather invasions and flourished until the Polygar Wars , where they were defeated by the British East India Company forces.
India's history and culture is dynamic, spanning back to the beginning of human civilization. It begins with a mysterious culture along the Indus River and in. Nov 13, India is a country in South Asia whose name comes from the Indus River. According to the writings known as the Puranas (religious/historical.
In , a Portuguese fleet under Vasco da Gama successfully discovered a new sea route from Europe to India, which paved the way for direct Indo-European commerce. After their conquest in Goa, the Portuguese instituted the Goa Inquisition , where new Indian converts and non-Christians were punished for suspected heresy against Christianity, and were condemned to be burnt. The next to arrive were the Dutch , with their main base in Ceylon.
They established ports in Malabar. However, their expansion into India was halted, after their defeat in the Battle of Colachel by the Kingdom of Travancore , during the Travancore-Dutch War.